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The Flood Mitigation Assistance Program was created as part of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act (NFIRA) of 1994 and amended by the Flood Insurance Reform Act (FIRA) of 2004 (42 USC 4101) with the goal of reducing or eliminating claims under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Funding of up to $40 million nationally for the FMA program is provided through the National Flood Insurance Fund. FMA provides funding to assist states, local governments and Indian tribal nations in implementing measures to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk of flood damage to buildings, manufactured homes and other structures insurable under the NFIP. All applicants must be NFIP participants, must have an FMA compliant All Natural Hazard Mitigation Plan approved, and the community cannot be under suspension or on probation.
There are three types of FMA grants available: Planning, Project and Technical Assistance. Planning grants are available to states and communities to prepare flood mitigation plans. States and NFIP-participating communities (with approved flood mitigation plans) can apply for project grants such as the elevation, acquisition and/or relocation of NFIP-insured structures. Ten percent of the project grant is made available to states as a technical assistance grant. These funds may be used by the state to help administer the program.
Since fiscal year 2003, states have been required to prioritize FMA project grant applications that include repetitive loss properties. This emphasis encourages states and communities to address target repetitive loss properties identified in the FEMA Repetitive Loss Strategy. These include structures with four or more losses and structures with two or more losses, where cumulative payments have exceeded the property value. States and communities are also encouraged to develop plans that address the mitigation of these target repetitive loss properties.